Configurations

Changing Verdict configuration

1. Creating a configuration file (i.e., verdict.properties) in the config directory. In order for the options in this file to be effective, Verdict should be build again using a mvn package command.
2. Setting environment variables: When Verdict’s Java instance is created, it scans all environment variables and stores them in Verdict’s configuration if they start with verdict. For setting environment variables, periods (.) in option keys must be replaced with underscores (_). For example, verdict.loglevel option can be set by verdict_loglevel=debug.
3. Passing parameters when making a connection
• Spark: You can pass parameters using the --conf argument. For example
$spark-shell --jars target/ --conf verdict.loglevel=warn  will set the Verdict’s log level to warn. • Hive, Impala: You can pass the parameters in the JDBC connection string. For example $ veeline/bin/veeline -h "impala://host:port/default;verdict.loglevel=warn"


will set the Verdict’s log level to warn.

4. Using a Verdict query: You can issue a set key=value query after a Verdict instance is created.

The higher-numbered items take higher precedences.

Verdict configuration options

Basic options

Key Default values Description
verdict.bypass false If set true, Verdict simply passes all the query to the underlying database and returns the result to the user without any modifications. The only exception is set bypass=false.
verdict.loglevel info Determines the log level; should be one of “debug”, “info”, “warn”, “error”. loglevel is a synonym for verdict.loglevel.
verdict.relative_target_cost 10% Keeps the cost of Verdict’s query processing under a certain level. Verdict chooses a set of the largest samples under this limit.

JDBC options

Key Default values Description
verdict.jdbc.user   If set, pass as a “user” value when making a JDBC connection to an underlying database.
verdict.jdbc.password   If set, pass as a “password” value when making a JDBC connection to an underlying database.
verdict.jdbc.kerberos_principal n/a If set, makes an appropriate Kerberos authentication when making a JDBC connection to an underlying database. principal is a synonym for verdict.jdbc.kerberos_principal.
verdict.jdbc.ignore_user_credentials false If set to true, “user” and “password” values are not passed even if they are set in verdict.jdbc.user and verdict.jdbc.password.
verdict.jdbc.dbname   One of “impala”, “hive2”. The database name specified in the JDBC connection string is set.
verdict.jdbc.host 127.0.0.1 The host that will be used for a JDBC connection.
verdict.jdbc.port   The port number that will be used for a JDBC connection.
verdict.jdbc.schema default The default schema (or database) that a JDBC connection will connect to.
verdict.jdbc.hive2.default_port 10000 The default port number that will be used for a hive2 connection if the port number is not explicitly set in the passed JDBC connection string.
verdict.jdbc.hive2.class_name com.cloudera.hive.jdbc4.HS2Driver The class name of the JDBC driver that will be used for a hive2 connection.
verdict.jdbc.impala.default_port 21050 The default port number that will be used for an impala connection if the port number is not explicitly set in the passed JDBC connection string.
verdict.jdbc.impala.class_name com.cloudera.impala.jdbc4.Driver The class name of the JDBC driver that will be used for an impala connection.

Spark options

Key Default values Description
verdict.spark.cache_samples true (Lazily) cache the sample tables created by Verdict using Spark’s DataFrame#cache() function. The sample tables are typically significantly smaller than the original tables. Caching sample tables will lower query response times.

Key Default values Description
verdict.meta_data.meta_database_suffix _verdict When set to a non-empty string, Verdict creates a separate database (or called a schema or catalog in some systems) for storing its sample tables and related metadata. If the original database’s name is “default”, all the sample tables for that database are stored in the database named “default_verdict”. The user must have the privilege to create a new database unless the database already exists. Also, the user who wants to create samples must have the privilege to create new tables in the database.
verdict.meta_data.meta_name_table verdict_meta_name A table for storing the names of the sample tables.
verdict.meta_data.meta_size_table verdict_meta_size A table for storing the sizes of the sample tables.
verdict.meta_data.refresh_policy per_session How often to refresh metadata. One of “per_session”, “per_query”, “manual”. If set to “manual”, “refresh” query must be used for updating metadata.

Error bound options

Key Default values Description
verdict.error_bound.confidence_internal_probability 95% The probability with which Verdict’s error bounds hold. Should be one of 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%.
verdict.error_bound.error_column_pattern err bound of %s Column names for error bounds. Must include a single “%s”.
verdict.error_bound.method subsampling A method for error bound computation. One of “subsampling”, “bootstrapping” (only for research), “analytic”, “no_error_bound”.
verdict.error_bound.subsampling.partition_column __vpart A column name internally used by subsampling for partitioning tuples.
verdict.error_bound.subsampling.probability_column __vprob A column name internally used by subsampling for sampling probabilities.
verdict.error_bound.subsampling.partition_count 100 The number of partitions used by subsampling for computing error bounds.
verdict.error_bound.bootstrapping.random_value_column_name verdict_rand only for research
verdict.error_bound.bootstrapping.bootstrap_multiplicity_colname __mul only for research
verdict.error_bound.bootstrapping.num_of_trials 100 only for research

Note that changing subsampling-related parameters affect sample creation process.

Passing database-specific options through Verdict

Verdict-on-Spark

Simply launch Spark (or PySpark) as usual. Verdict runs as an imported module on Spark; thus, it does not affect Spark’s regular interface.

Verdict-on-{Hive, Impala}

Specify the parameters in the JDBC connection string. Or, if you are programmatically connecting to Verdict using the JDBC interface, you can pass java.util.Properties as an optional argument. For example, the following command will set your Hive applications to use a specific job queue.

\$ veeline/bin/veeline -h "hive2://host:port/default;mapred.job.queue.name=root.example_queue"


Verdict passes all key-value parameters (except for the ones that start with verdict) when it makes an internal JDBC connection to the database it works with.